According to statistics, more than 75% of men over 40-45 years of age experience prostate diseases. Strong circulation of lymph and blood in the vessels of the small pelvis often provokes swelling of the organ and congestion. In addition, the prostate is well innervated, so the symptoms of the disease in men include severe pain.
What is the prostate gland
The prostate or prostate gland is the male reproductive organ, part of the reproductive system. It is located in the small pelvis, below the bladder, partially covers the urethra and ejaculatory ducts. The prostate consists of two lobes and an isthmus that connects them. In addition, the top, base, anterior, and posterior parts are distinguished in the organ. The shape of the prostate resembles a chestnut, elastic, consists of glandular and muscle cells. The prostate performs three main functions:
- Motor. The muscle cells of the prostate form a sphincter in the urethra that holds urine.
- Secretory. The gland produces a special secret that provides sperm with mobility, liquefies the sperm.
- Barrier. Prevents the spread of infection from the urethra.
Prostate disease in men
Pathologies, as a rule, are associated with damage to the organ by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, congestion or neoplasms (both malignant and benign). >Among the diseases of the prostate are the following:
- inflammation (prostatitis);
- benign hyperplasia of the gland (adenoma);
- malignant neoplasm (cancer);
- cystic neoplasms;
- prostate abscess.
Many factors that create a favorable environment and conditions for the penetration and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms (fungi, viruses, bacteria) can provoke the onset of the development of pathology and signs of inflammation of the prostate in men. In addition, they can cause the development of benign or malignant tumors. Unfavorable factors include:
- venereal diseases;
- hypothermia of the body;
- long-term antibiotic treatment;
- stagnation of blood in the pelvis;
- bad habits;
- endocrine pathologies;
- pathology of the reproductive system;
- oncological diseases in history;
- prolonged fatigue.
Symptoms of prostate disease in men
Signs of disruption of the prostate gland depend on the cause of the disease, its localization and the nature of the pathological processes. As a rule, the patient complains of weakness, decreased performance, general fatigue and irritability. In addition, symptoms of prostatitis and prostate adenoma in men, stones or abscess can manifest as follows:
- violation of urination;
- erectile dysfunction;
- pain, burning in the urethra;
- temperature rise;
- painful intercourse;
- lack of ejaculation;
- pain in the perineum with sudden movements;
- offensive discharge from the urethra.
Inflammatory lesion of the prostate gland, prostatitis, is one of the most common diseases of the male genital area. The main cause of the pathology is considered to be a violation of blood circulation in the pelvis, which leads to a strong increase in the proportions of the organ and its edema. Symptoms of inflammation of the prostate depend on the type of disease. There are several types of pathology:
- Acute inflammation. Caused by pathogenic microbes (eg, E. coli or enterobacteria). Acute prostatitis is manifested by severe pain and pain in the urethra, impaired urination: urine is excreted with difficulty, sometimes drop by drop. Some patients report an increase in temperature.
- Chronic bacterial inflammation. As a rule, it is caused by sexual infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc. ). Symptoms of chronic inflammation of the prostate may be mild or absent. Among the characteristic signs, sexual dysfunction (erection dysfunction, premature ejaculation), painful urination (mainly nocturnal) and mucus discharge from the urethra are noted.
- Chronic non-bacterial inflammation. The disease develops as a result of inflammatory processes in other organs (pyelonephritis, cystitis), blood stagnation, heart failure, hypothermia. Such prostatitis often has one symptom - difficulty urinating. Often the result of pathology is a violation of the kidneys, discomfort in the lower back.
A disease of the prostate characterized by benign tissue growth and the formation of nodules that gradually compress the urethra and seminal ducts, the bladder. Hyperplasia can lead to a violation of the concentration of hormones in the blood. Signs of prostate adenoma in men vary depending on the stage of the disease:
- Compensated. As a rule, at this stage, men do not notice specific symptoms. Sometimes there is an increased urge to urinate at night.
- Subcompensated. The main symptoms are a feeling of heaviness in the bladder, its incomplete emptying. Liquid during urination is difficult to pass, patients complain of difficult ejaculation.
- Decompensated. It is characterized by a significant decrease in the volume of the muscles of the bladder and their tone. In addition, adenoma develops chronic fatigue, pain and cramps when trying to urinate. In the absence of treatment, tumor growth, the intensity of pain increases significantly, defecation may be disturbed due to compression of the rectum.
Prostate adenoma is considered a precancerous disease, therefore, when this tissue growth is detected, a biopsy is necessary to detect atypical cells and ultrasound (ultrasound) to study the structure of the organ in detail. Hyperplasia of the gland, as a rule, progresses slowly, which allows timely diagnosis and treatment.
A pathological cavity with fluid or a prostate cyst develops under the influence of inflammatory processes of the gland, in which the excretory ducts of the organ are squeezed, and the outflow of secretion is disturbed. Pathology can be provoked by constant stress, nervous strain, chronic diseases and tumors of neighboring organs, sclerosis of prostate tissues. Signs of cystic formation are:
- burning in the urethra;
- enlargement of the gland in size;
- decreased libido;
- increase in body temperature;
- feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- reproductive dysfunction.
The formation of stones in the prostate occurs due to a sedentary lifestyle, injuries in the groin area, inflammatory diseases of the organ. Gradually increasing in size, the calculi violate the integrity of the ducts of the gland, urine begins to enter the prostate tissue. Stones, as a rule, consist of phosphates, salts of uric and oxalic acid, protein and epithelium of the ducts. The main signs of pathology include:
- weak erection;
- pain when urinating;
- frequent exacerbations of inflammation;
- pain during ejaculation;
- seals in the gland and pain when it is probed.
A malignant neoplasm that develops from the secretory epithelium of the prostate is called cancer or carcinoma. Prolonged inflammatory processes precede the development of the tumor. The risk group includes men over 40 who abuse alcohol and smoke. Symptoms of oncological damage to the prostate are nonspecific and are manifested by a violation of the functioning of the organ. In the early stages, the disease usually does not manifest itself. With the development of the tumor, the following symptoms develop:
- painful urination;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- swelling of the legs;
- violation of the chair;
An infectious-inflammatory pathology, which is accompanied by purulent fusion of tissues, is called an abscess. Such a process develops due to the transfer of pathogenic bacteria from the primary focus of infection to the prostate gland through the bloodstream. For a long time, an abscess may be asymptomatic. The main signs of the presence of a purulent focus in the tissues of the prostate are: >
- fever and fever;
- pain during sexual intercourse, urination;
- excretion of fetid pus in the urine (when an abscess ruptures).
Purulent formation in the prostate is diagnosed with the help of instrumental and laboratory studies. In blood tests, an increase in the number of leukocytes, an increase in the value of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate are noted. In the study of urine, leukocyturia and pathogenic microflora are detected. Palpation examination through the rectum shows the presence of a rounded formation.
The main methods of treatment of the prostate gland
Methods for treating pathologies depend on the specific disease, stage of the course and severity. Therapy for prostate diseases is selected individually, depending on the age of the patient, the results of laboratory tests, instrumental studies, the presence of concomitant pathologies. Familiarize yourself with the basic principles of the treatment of prostate diseases:
To prevent the development of prostate diseases, you should follow the principles of a healthy lifestyle. Reduces the risk of prostate pathologies by following the recommendations:
- Stick to a balanced diet.
- Get regular exercise.
- Take multivitamin complexes, immunomodulatory drugs.
- Refrain from drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, drugs.
- Avoid hypothermia.
- See your doctor as soon as symptoms appear.